There are no specific mathematical problems that prevent the complete use of solar radiation as an energy source. However, there are technical, economic, and practical challenges that must be considered in order to efficiently and fully utilize solar energy:

Energy conversion efficiency: the efficiency of converting sunlight into electrical energy through photovoltaic (PV) modules is limited. Current technologies typically achieve efficiency values between 15% and 25%.

Energy distribution and storage: distributing solar energy over long distances and storing energy for use at night or on cloudy days present further challenges. This requires the development of efficient and cost-effective energy storage systems and improved transmission infrastructures.

Cost: The cost of manufacturing, installing, and maintaining solar systems is still relatively high, although it has decreased in recent years. This can affect the economic viability of solar energy compared to other energy sources.

Environmental Impact: The manufacturing of PV modules requires the use of materials and chemicals that can cause environmental impacts. Recycling and end-of-life disposal of solar modules are also challenges that must be considered.

Land Use: Large solar power plants require extensive land that may compete with agricultural and environmental requirements.

Intermittent energy generation: Because solar radiation depends on time of day, weather conditions, and geographic location, solar energy generation is intermittent by nature. This requires integration with other energy sources or storage systems to provide a continuous power supply.

Maximizing the use of solar energy requires overcoming these challenges and continuously working to improve technologies, systems, and practices.

Why use supercomputer time?

Supercomputers can be applied in various areas for the future of solar energy to find solutions to the challenges associated with its use. Some of the relevant application areas are:

Materials science and nanotechnology: supercomputers can be used to study the properties of new materials and nanostructures that could be used in photovoltaic cells to increase energy conversion efficiency.

Optimization of solar cell design: using supercomputers, complex numerical simulations can be performed to optimize the design of solar cells. This can lead to the development of solar cells with higher efficiency and better performance.

Weather and climate models: by improving weather and climate prediction models, supercomputers can help to better predict the availability of solar energy and thus optimize the planning and integration of solar energy into the energy grid.

Energy storage: supercomputers can help in the study and development of efficient energy storage systems, for example by analyzing battery chemistry, materials and system designs.

Energy transmission and distribution: supercomputers can be used to develop algorithms and models to optimize energy transmission and distribution networks to make solar energy transport and distribution more efficient.

Economic modeling and optimization: Supercomputers can help analyze the costs and benefits of different solar system designs, storage solutions, and energy distribution systems. This information can help decision makers develop the best strategies for promoting and using solar energy.

To effectively use supercomputer time, it is important to foster close collaborations among experts from different disciplines such as physics, materials science, electrical engineering, computer science, meteorology, and economics. This collaboration can help to better understand the challenges associated with solar energy utilization and develop innovative solutions.

In my view, it therefore makes sense for the EU to pool budgets together. Perhaps this should also be done jointly with the US, Canada, Australia, India, etc. This has several advantages on top of that:

Pooling of resources: by working together, the countries involved can pool their resources to develop and operate more powerful supercomputers. This could help accelerate research and development in areas such as solar energy and other renewables.

Knowledge exchange: international collaboration enables the exchange of ideas, expertise and best practices between participating countries. This can lead to a better understanding of solar energy challenges and the development of effective solutions.

Research and development collaboration: through joint research and development projects, participating countries can learn from each other and work together to improve solar technologies, storage systems, and energy infrastructures.

Cost-efficiency: jointly funding and using a supercomputer can be more cost-efficient than each country investing individually to build and operate such a facility. This can help reduce the financial burden on individual countries while ensuring access to powerful computing resources.

Global cooperation: Cooperation in the development and use of supercomputers can also help foster international cooperation in other areas, such as climate change mitigation, environmental management, and energy policy.

However, such international cooperation should be mindful of potential challenges there, such as political differences, intellectual property issues, and differing national interests. Nevertheless, the benefits of joint collaboration in the development and use of supercomputers can help accelerate the global energy transition and support the transition to a more sustainable future. The future of solar energy looks bright, but we need every acceleration. That’s why we should bring the future of solar energy into the present.

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